Links: Pages on Judaism, Other Religions
God(s)Atheist / Monotheist / Polytheist / Other
TextsTanakh and Talmud
Area of OriginBabylon (mostly - now Iraq) and Israel
FounderCombination of prehistoric practices which became organized in Babylon
Numbers in the UK (Census results)
2001259 9272011263 000
Jews Worldwide (Pew & WM)
World: 0.225%. Israel (75.6%), Gibraltar (2.1%), USA (1.8%), Monaco (1.7%), Canada (1%), Belize (1%), Cayman Islands (0.8%), Moldova (0.6%), Bahrain (0.6%), Argentina (0.5%), UK (0.5%), Australia (0.5%), France (0.5%) 1

Judaism is one of the most ancient religions, and became largely codified in Babylon in the 6th century BCE2. It was perhaps the first religion to be comprehensively monotheistic. Jews believe that God has a special covenant with the Jewish community3, as testified to in the Torah. From Judaism sprang both Christianity and Islam. Judaism is counted as one of the great world religions4.

1. Main Pages on Judaism

Moral Debates

Book Reviews

Links and other pages:

2. Numbers of Jews Around the World, by Country

TOP 202011
Pew Forum
Social & Moral
Development Index

(Lower is better)
7Cayman Islands0.8%
Data Source

The way that the religious and cultural identity of the Jews is intermingled means that statistics often include both religious Jews and secular (non-religious) ones. For example, atheist Jews make up a sizeable portion of Jews worldwide.

As a result of the Holocaust in the 20th century CE there was a dramatic and rapid move in Jewish numbers away from Europe3.

The population of only one country is mostly Jew (2011)1. Comparing those 1 country(ies) to the rest of the world:

3. Types of Judaism14

#Poland #theism #USA

There are four main forms of Judaism.

4. About Judaism14

#agnosticism #atheism #christianity #Egypt #Germany #islam #Israel #marriage #old_testament #Spain #USA #xenophobia

5. The Disputed Ancient History of the Jews

#Ethiopia #Israel

In his description of Humanistic Judaism, Prof. Partridge notes that modern secular academics dispute the entire Biblical pseudo-history of the Jewish peoples.

Book CoverAccording to Sherwin Wine, the major exponent of Humanistic Judaism, the traditional conception of Jewish history is mistaken. In his view, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob never existed. Furthermore, the Exodus account is a myth: 'There is no historical evidence to substantiate a massive Hebrew departure from the land of the Pharaohs. As far as we can surmise, the Hebrew occupation of the hill country on both sides of the Jordan was continuous. The 12 tribes never left their ancestral land, never endured 400 years of slavery, and never wandered the Sinai desert.' Moreover, Moses was not the leader of the Hebrews, nor did he compose the Torah. In this light, it is an error to regard the biblical account as authoritative; rather it is a human record of the history of the Israelite nation, the purpose of which is to reinforce the faith of the Jewish nation. [...] Humanistic Judaism thus offers an option for those who wish to identify with the Jewish community despite their rejection of the traditional understanding of God's nature and activity.

"Encyclopedia of New Religions" by Christopher Partridge (2004)27

By Vexen Crabtree 2015 Jan 03
(Last Modified: 2016 Dec 21)
Second edition 2009 Jun 27
Originally published 2004 Oct 06
Parent page: Single God Religions (Monotheism)

References: (What's this?)

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(1906) Jewish Encyclopedia. Published in 12 volumes between 1901-1906. The entirity of this text is in the public domain. A copy of the text can be accessed on www.jewishencyclopedia.com.

Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer
(1997) Religions of the World. Subtitled "The Illustrated Guide to Origins, Beliefs, Traditions, & Festivals". By Elizabeth Breuilly, Joanne O'Brien & Martin Palmer. Hardback. Published for Transedition Limited and Fernleigh Books by Lionheart Books.

Davies, Owen
(2009) Grimoires: A History of Magic Books. Davies is Professor of Social History at the University of Hertfordshire, UK. Hardback. Published by Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Eliade, Mircea
(1987, Ed.) The Encyclopedia of Religion. 16 huge volumes. Eliade is editor-in-chief. Entries are alphabetical, so, no page numbers are given in references, just article titles. Published by Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, USA.

Finkelstein & Silberman
(2002) The Bible Unearthed. Subtitle: "Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and The Origin of Its Sacred Tests". Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman. Published by The Free Press, a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc, NY, USA.

Harrison, Guy P.
(2008) 50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God. Published by Prometheus Books, New York, USA.

Kressel, Neil
(2007) Bad Faith: The Danger of Religious Extremism. Published by Prometheus Books, New York, USA.

Partridge, Christopher
(2004, Ed.) Encyclopedia of New Religions. Hardback. Published by Lion Publishing, Oxford, UK.

Pew Forum. Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life.
(2012) The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Major Religious Groups as of 2010. Published 2012 Dec 18, accessed online 2013 May 01.

Pilkington, C. M.
(1995) Teach Yourself Judaism. Published by Hodder Headline PLC.

United Nations
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.

Wheatcroft, Andrew
(2004) Infidels: A History of the Conflict Between Christendom and Islam. 2004 edition with extra material published by Penguin Books Ltd, London, UK. First Published 2003 by Viking.

(2008) Worldmapper Datasets 551-582: Religion. Worldmapper Datasets 551-582: Religion (2008 Mar 26) on worldmapper.org/.../religion_data.xls, accessed 2013 Nov 11. Authored by John Protchard, published by SASI, University of Shieffield. Data is for year 2005, with some datasets being edited from original sources to remove the effects of double-counting, and, adjusting for population changes between 2002 and 2005.


  1. Pew (2012).^^
  2. Finkelstein & Silberman (2002).^
  3. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997) p10.^^^
  4. "Religions of the World" by Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997) counts Judaism amongst 10 world religions, devoting a chapter to each.^
  5. Worldmapper (2008).^
  6. UN (2013) Table 1 provides Life Expectancy At Birth for all countries.^
  7. UN (2013) Table 14.^
  8. UN (2013) Table 1.^
  9. UN (2013) Table 4.^
  10. Encyclopædia Britannica article "Falasha" accessed 2015 Jan 03.^
  11. Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) article "Falashas".^
  12. From Wikipedia (link), accessed 2015 Jan 03: A 1999 study by Lucotte and Smets studied the DNA of 38 unrelated Beta Israel males living in Israel and 104 Ethiopians living in regions located north of Addis Ababa. It concluded that "the distinctiveness of the Y-chromosome haplotype distribution of the Beta-Israel from conventional Jewish populations and their relatively greater similarity in haplotype profile to non-Jewish Ethiopians are consistent with the view that the Beta Israel people descended from ancient inhabitants of Ethiopia and not the Levant." This study confirmed the findings of a 1991 study by Zoossmann-Disken et al. Similarly, a 2000 study by Hammer et al. of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes of Jewish and non-Jewish groups suggested that "paternal gene pools of Jewish communities from Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East descended from a common Middle Eastern ancestral population", with the exception of the Beta Israel, who were "affiliated more closely with non-Beta Israel Ethiopians and other East Africans". A 2004 study by Shen et al. reached similar conclusions, that the Beta Israel were likely descended from local Ethiopian populations.^
  13. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997) p41.^
  14. Added to this page on 2015 Jan 03.^^
  15. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997) p36.^
  16. Pilkington (1995) p3.^
  17. Partridge (2004) p104.^
  18. Harrison (2008) chapter 44: "Someone I trust told me that my god is real".^
  19. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997) p34.^
  20. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997) p37.^
  21. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997) p39.^
  22. The word "Torah" is used (wrongly) by some people to refer to the whole of the Hebrew bible, when it should only really be used for the first 5 books. See "Religions of the World" by Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997) p28.^
  23. Eliade (1987) volume 2 entry "Biblical Literature".^
  24. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997) p28.^
  25. Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life research results "U.S. Religious Knowledge Survey" (2010 Sep 28). From a poll conducted in May and June 2010 involving 3412 American adults.^
  26. Davies (2009) p7-15,29.^
  27. Partridge (2004) p118.^

© 2016 Vexen Crabtree. All rights reserved.